Sublethal doses of neonicotinoid imidacloprid can interact with honey bee chemosensory protein 1 (CSP1) and inhibit its function
Hongliang Li, Jing Tan, Xinmi Song, Fan Wu, Mingzhu Tang, Qiyun Hua, Huoqing Zheng, Fuliang Hu
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Available online 14 March 2017, ISSN 0006-291X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.03.051.
As a frequently used neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid can impair the chemoreceptive behavior of honey bees even at sublethal doses, while the physiochemical mechanism has not been further revealed. Here, multiple fluorescence spectra, thermodynamic method, and molecular docking were used to study the interaction and the functional inhibition of imidacloprid to the recombinant CSP1 protein in Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. The results showed that the fluorescence intensity (λem = 332 nm) of CSP1 could be significantly quenched by imidacloprid in a dynamic mode. During the quenching process, ΔH > 0, ΔS > 0, indicating that the acting forces of imidacloprid with CSP1 are mainly hydrophobic interactions. Synchronous fluorescence showed that the fluorescence of CSP1 was mainly derived from tryptophan, and the hydrophobicity of tryptophan decreased with the increase of imidacloprid concentration. Molecular docking predicted the optimal pose and the amino acid composition of the binding process. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra showed that imidacloprid reduced the α-helix of CSP1 and caused the extension of the CSP1 peptide chain. In addition, the binding of CSP1 to floral scent β-ionone was inhibited by nearly 50% of the apparent association constant (KA) in the presence of 0.28–2.53 ng/bee of imidacloprid, and the inhibition rate of nearly 95% at 3.75 ng/bee of imidacloprid at sublethal dose level. This study initially revealed the molecular physiochemical mechanism that sublethal doses of neonicotinoid still interact and inhibit the physiological function of the honey bees' chemoreceptive system.
Keywords: Apis cerana; Chemosensory protein; Neonicotinoid imidacloprid; Binding interaction; Functional inhibition
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